Legally Armed Citizens at Active Shooter Scenes / SWAT Post Mission Debrief

These lessons are approved for in-service credits in the state of Maryland by the Maryland Police Training Commission.

Course Location:

This is a virtual course, offered online only and available to registered users of the Officer Virtual Academy at all times.

If there are any questions with regard to the content, please contact the instructor:
Lt. Frank Borelli via email to

Course Description:

This course of instruction addresses the growing concerns of legally armed citizens either on scene when an active shooter/active killer event starts, caught in the immediate area when one occurs, or responding to the scene if they feel compelled to protect/rescue someone therein. The SWAT Debrief portion of the training gives an overview of what the Debrief and After Action Report should look like for law enforcement special operations teams.


There are no prerequisites for attending this program.

Course Sequencing:

This course is a personal-knowledge-only (no continuing education or in-service credits) program. It is recommended that the student officer view/attend the following courses before viewing this one:
Boyd’s Cycle Applied to Conflict Survival
Active Shooter Response Protocols
Active Shooter Scene & Response Management
Active Shooter Media Management
Off-Duty Survival Protocols

Course Objectives:

  • Upon completion, the student officer will be able to articulate the challenges created for law enforcement by the presence of legally armed citizens at an active shooter / active killer event scene.
  • Upon completion, the student officer will be able to identify and articulate the difference between criminal aggressor common behaviors on scene and legal defender common behaviors on scene.
  • Upon completion, the student officer will be able to identify and articulate the protocols applicable to off-duty officers on scene.

Course Materials:

Course Syllabus

Course Introduction

PDF Handout of PowerPoint Slide presentation

About the Instructors

Lt. Frank Borelli – LE Instructor / Editorial Director
With over 35 years of operational experience and more than 30 years of instructional experience, Lt. Borelli has taught programs involving firearms, defensive tactics, officer survival, active shooter response and more to officers from all levels of government to include city, county, state, federal and military. He remains active in law enforcement, continually training and being trained to keep his skills up to date and sharp. 


Additional Resources:

Active Shooter or Hostage Barricade Situation?                          (article)
Active Shooter Response Continues to Evolve                            (article)
Take Another Look: Barricaded Active Shooter Events                (article)
Active Shooters Defy Simple and Singular Solutions                   (article)
Post Active Shooter Priorities                                                    (article)
How To Manage Active Shooter Response And Recovery           (article)
Active Shooters & Mass Shootings: Then, Now & In The Future   (article)
Preserving the History of SWAT                         (article)
SWAT Teams Train for the New Normal             (article)
Millennials on the SWAT Team                          (article)
SWAT Training Away From Home                      (article)


The 2nd Amendment & Law Enforcement
Active Shooter Response Evolution – Sponsored by FirstNet, Built with AT&T

Not Enrolled

Course Includes

  • 6 Lessons
  • 1 Quiz
  • Course Certificate